Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Wednesday, 19 March 2014


The ``abrazo de Vergara´´was a treaty signed in Oñate, Guipúzcua (Spain), between General Espartero and Maroto on the 29 August, 1929. It put an end to the first Carlist war, which was fought by ``Isabelinos´(whose leader was Espartero)´, and ``Carlistas´´(whose major leader was Maroto). It is very famous because in this event, the two enemies hung each other representing the peace that there was already between them. The war had been won by the ``Isabelinos´´(Espartero).

On 1833, Fernando VII died and the recently-borned Isabel was named queen (after abolishing the Salic Law)  under the regency of her mother María Cristina of Bourbon. Fernando´s brother, Carlos, thought that he was the pretender to the throne, and didn´t like the idea of not being king. This provoked military uprisings among the supporters of Carlos. Spain was preparing for a war that would last for seven years between liberals ,``Isabelinos´´ and absolutists, ``Carlistas´´. ``Carlism´´ had a greater influence in Navarre, País Vasco, and provinces in Teruel and Castellón, although the cities of Pamplona, Bilbao or San Sebastián were liberals throughout the whole conflict.

The most important figures of the war were Espartero and the Carlist leader Zumalacárregui, which died in Bilbao in 1835. After the first years of no clear winner, after Zumalacárregui´s dead and specially after 1837, the Carlists loses started to be consecutive. Actually, since the failure of the ``Expedición Real´´, the carlists crisis increased and the liberals were winning positions. Finally, the war ended in the so-called ``Abrazo de Vergara´´, which, among others, recognized  the Basque ``fueros´´( the laws that a municipality had to regulate the local life), and gave some advantages to the Carlists that had fought. Don Carlos had to flee to France  but he didn´t renounce to his rights as legitimate king. The later  non-total fulfillment of the promises about the Basque ``fueros´´, would give rise to more Carlists Wars.


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