Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Wednesday, 19 March 2014


In the 13 of September of 1923, the General Primo de Rivera, gave a coup d’état in which he ended the Restoration system, starting a new period of military dictatorship which lasted till 1931. The Restoration politic system, in which parties took turns to have the power in pacific agreements. This system was maintained till the establishment of the dictatorship, however, in the last years, the system showed clear signs of attrition. The factors that sparked the coup d’état were: the discontent of the army against the Annual disaster and the eagerness of covering the conclusions of the Picasso expedient, the rise of the peripheral nationalism and the rise of the republicans and the labor  movement and the win of fascism in Italy and the ascent into power of Mussolini. When Primo de Rivera gave the coup d’état in 13 September 1923, he received immediately the support of the king Alfonso XIII. The rebels the war state, the abolition of constitutional guarantees and the abolition of the Cortes.

The regime of the 1876 Constitution was substituted without any popular resistance. This dictatorship had two phases, the military directory (1923-1925) and the civil directory (1925-1930). In the military directory, Primo de Rivera he assigned himself as Minister, which was advised by a military directorate that rapidly established certain actions: the abolition of the Catalonian flag and hymn, and restriction of the Catalonian language , the “mano dura” politic against public order and the creation of the Unión Patriótica politic party, directed by a military. The great success of the directorate took place in Africa. 

The  Almucenas disembarkment  in 1925 ended the resistance of the Rif Kabile. The leader, Abd-el-Krim surrendered to the authorities of the French Morocco. This, give a great popularity to the dictator. In 1925, a civil govern, directed by Primo de Rivera, substituted the military directory. The Civil govern tried to institutionalize the dictatorship. In 1927, it established a national consultative assembly, composed of member of the Unión Patriótica. Primo de Rivera continued following the Italian model, the fascist council. This assembly failed rapidly trying to establish a new fundamental law to the dictatorship Constitution. Primo de Rivera also tried to copy the social model of the Italian fascism, establishing the Corporate Labor Organization, a kind of syndicate that judged between Patrones and Obreros, another time, he failed. 

The end of the dictatorship ended with an opposition from republicans, anarquists, student’s movement etc. A key element of the fall of the dictatorship, was the discontent of the army. When the fall of the york’s stock market fell, economic problems developed around the world cause social discontent in the country. Finally, the old and sick Primo de Rivera dismissed in 1930 and two months later, he died in exile in Paris.

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