Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Wednesday, 5 March 2014

The Ebro Battle began on the middle night 25 of July 1938, when the forces of the Ebro´s army crossed the river breaking down the defensive lines of the Morocco army leaded by general Yagüe.
The operation was due to the republic govern necessity to reduce the press that the national army was creating below the Valencian forehead, that was threatening the surveillance of the industrial zone of Sagunto and the city of Valencia. Another reason were the international circumstances, due to several tensions that existed in Europe because of the pretensions to extent the territory carried out by the Nazis that made necessary an operation that will give back to the Republic a better position according to international relations.
The operation was designed by the Mayor Estate, the general Vicente Rojo, after received new armament on part from the URSS and reorganized their troops, he previewed the way of the river, passing through different points of Tarragona´s zone, being useful the surprise factor. Once overcame the first phase, the republican troops had to enter on the territory by different points.
The initial operation surprise became an exit and several units from the Ebro´s army crossed the river between Mezquinenza´s city and the village of Amposta, being the nucleus of the attack the line between the village of Ribaroja and Benifallet´s city, advancing to the inside and arriving to Gandesa where they resisted some months.

At the beginning the national army didn’t opposed so much resistance and it was obligated to get out from there and to form a defense line in the zone of the village of Fayón – Pobla de Massaluca – Villalba dels Arcs – Gandesa, in the Rio Canalete Valley, but the reaction of the franquists forces was very fast and in not so many hours a lot of units from all the country came to toughen up the new defense line to unpack all marshes in order to left the Ebro army without anything to carry to their mouths. Also it interviewed the German aviary and the Italian troops and it was almost decisive the participation of the Condor Legion and they could stop the republican advance that without having any logic it didn’t have the support of the republican aviary.
The forehead was established during a long time. Rojo stopped the operations with his exhausted troops, until the national army, beginning November, it contra attacked and the Ebro Army had to cross the river embouchure and finally, the Republican Army was disjointed.
The Ebro Battle was a wearied battle that became the cruelest of the Civil War where they were a lot of deaths.

On 16th of November, the battle was finished and it began the offensive from the national army against Cataluña. 

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