Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Thursday, 6 March 2014

      THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE (1808-1814)

Spain at the beginning of the XIX century  : Since 1808  to 1814,Spain is divided .Fernando VII abdicated In Bayonne ,in favor of Napoleon ,that appeared in Spain with his troops.
Napoleon refused to the Spanish throne of the Bourbon’s dynasty .Napoleon .In 1808 refused to his brother , king of Spain ,he was named Joseph Bonaparte .
In the side that fought  Napoleon there were two main political ideologies emerges:
·         Liberals:  They follow the new ideas but they stay loyal to de Bónica dynasty .The fought for ending the Old regime and setting up a Constitution, which granted rights and freedom to the Spanish people.

·         Absolutists: They were heirs of The Old Regime, they were opposed to the liberalism .

Both groups were against Napoleon

Another group were included ,the Afrancesados ,this group supported Joseph Bonaparte They thought that the new dynasty would bring positive things to our country.
The anti-French uprisings spread across the country. The territories free from French’s occupation organized themselves into Juntas Povinciales , that declared war on Napoleon. This Juntas were coordinated by Junta Suprema Central.

Spaniards fought ,for six years , the French Army. The fighting often took of Guerrillla warfare, they were groups that attacked the enemy by surprise.

The Spanish army won an important battle,the Battle of Bailén (1808) ,after this defeat, Napoleon comes to Spain witch lot of soldiers. Even at that moment French controlled almost all of the country,Napoleón defeat in Russia, with the help of British ,and the French were defeat in Arapiles (1812) and finally the left the country.

Because of the defeat, Napoleon gave back the Spanish crown to Fernando VII foR the Teatry of Valençay .
Spain didn’t has any legimate king, the Junta Suprema Central called elections to Cortes,who were the traditional parliament.
The Cortes of Cadiz made two important decisions:
·         They agreed on demolished the Old Regime
·         They passed the Constitution of 1812

When Fernando VII comes back, after Napoleon’s as defeat ,absolutism was imposed again.
To have a chronological order ,we can go back and distinguish several phases during The War of Independence :
·         Between 1808 and 1809 it is produced the French invasion and the Spanish uprising with the Battle of Bailén
·         Between 1809 and 1812 the French has the bélica initiative , predominated in almost all the peninsula.
·         In 1812-1813 it is produced the offensive British-Hispania run by Wellington.
·         To finish ,at the end of 1813, the Teatry of Valençay.


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