Comenius

Comenius
Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP)

Wednesday, 5 March 2014

THE LIBERAL TRIENNIUM (1820 – 1823)

Absolutism was restored in Spain in 1814 under Fernando VII, who refused to swear up the Constitution of 1812. It was a series of military and liberal Pronunciamientos between 1816 and 1820 who failed.

On January 1, 1820, colonel Rafael de Riego proclaims the Constitution of Cádiz in Cabezas de San Juan, province of Seville.
In March, meanwhile Riego´s troops spreads, a liberal insurrection in Galicia appears and it´s spreads for the whole country.

The revolution arrives and king Fernando VII finally swear the Constitution of Cádiz on the 10th of March.



The Triennium only last 3 years. The Santa Alianza met on the Congress of Verona in 1822 and decided that France invaded Spain to help Fernando VII and restored absolutism.
For the first time, the Constitution of 1812 was applied in a peacetime and with the monarch in the country. Fernando VII tried to obstruct the work of the liberal governments.
These attitude of the king will provoke a politic fracture that will spread during decades: the cleavage of the liberals.

On the other hand, the doceañistas will pretend to modified the Constitution searching a transaction with the king. After 1833 the doceañistas will become the moderates.
Then, the veinteañistas wants the strict application of the Constitution of 1812.The also known as the exaltados, became progresistas after 1833.
The division of the liberals introduced an impotant political instability during the Triennium.

After Napoleon´s emerge in Europe against the principles of the Restoration.defeat in 1815, the absolutists powers, met in the Congress of Vienna and the Holy Alliance compromised to intervene with a liberal threat.

So they met in 1822 a Congress of Verona, the powers agreed the intervention in Spain. The 7th of April 1823, a French army known as the ``One Hundred Thousand Sons of Saint Louis´´ entered Spain and conquered peacefully the country.

The 1st October it´s ended the liberal government resistance in Cádiz and Fernando VII restored as absolutist monarch.




RICARDO GARCÍA SÁEZ

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